way" of war. That legion size was at an all-time low was also a factor. Bolts were used for targeted fire on human opponents, while stones were used against fortifications or as an area saturation weapon. Rome also used a variety of incentives to encourage cooperation by the elites of conquered peoples, co-opting opposition and incorporating them into the structure of the empire. Everything was standardized, from the positioning of baggage, equipment and specific army units, to the duties of officers who were to set up sentries, pickets and orders for the next day's march. Francesca Barberini why Desdemona Marry Othello? through the magnificence of Princess Isabelles Apartment.
From a military standpoint however, they seem to have shared certain general characteristics: tribal polities with a relatively small and lesser elaborated state structure, light weaponry, fairly unsophisticated tactics and organization, a high degree of mobility, and inability to sustain combat power in their field. State controlled factories produced vast quantities of less specialist arms such as chainmail armor and spears as opposed to the gladius and lorica segmentata more prevalent in the early empire. 1, these elements waxed and waned over time, but they form a distinct basis underlying Rome's rise. Battle of Pydna edit Main article: Battle of Pydna At Pydna the contenders deployed on a relatively flat plain, and the Macedonians had augmented the infantry with a sizeable cavalry contingent. Brunt estimates that Rome mobilized 108,000 men for service in the legions between 218BC and 215BC, while at the height of the war effort (214BC to 212BC) against Hannibal Rome was able to mobilize approximately 230,000 men. 20 Maneuvering edit As the army approached its enemy, the velites in front would throw their javelins at the enemy and then retreat through the gaps in the lines. 89 Other writers argue that while some ancient Romans did view the world in terms of barbarians versus civilized Romans (epitomized in Hadrian's Wall of separation the reality of Roman frontiers was a fuzzy set of interlocking zones - political, military, judicial and financial, rather. The discipline of the Roman infantry restored the line however, and a counterattack eventually defeated the Gallic forces and their allies. 26 From a larger standpoint, as the battle waxed and waned, fresh units might be deployed through the intervals to relieve the men of the first line, allowing continual pressure to be brought forward.