system to study with its own biology. Failure means the denial of access to animals for research. This highlights an important issue with all research the delay between fundamental investigation and practical application may be many years or decades. It notes the limitations, but also concludes that they are highly useful. For two centuries, various mammals including dogs, cats, monkeys, pigs, cows and rodents have borne the brunt of humankinds quest to combat human mental and physical illnesses. The implication would seem to be that society should drastically reduce the amount of animal-based research scientists are permitted to carry out. The first three are not alternatives at all.
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They have also been crucial to development of disease-fighting molecules, known as antibodies. Animal research involves the use of dozens of species, hundreds of techniques and addresses thousands of hypotheses. Genomics and animal models, the revolution in biotechnology over the last two decades has given rise to various disciplines with the suffix -omics. And, if so, why we persist in using them. Theyre crucial in terms of taking the info we have obtained from the Human Genome Project and translating it into some kind of biology that can be studied. Most American research institutions are also reviewed. While certainly technically challenging, these new techniques are leading to great advances not touched upon by Knight. But what about animal testing in the name of scientific progress? So, the consequences for deviating from accepted ethical guidelines are well understood and severe. Lack of suitable alternatives, the list of proposed alternatives to animal research proposed in the article calling for an end to it include prevention programs, epidemiological studies, autopsies, in vitro research in cell cultures and computer modelling. Controversial, they are the genetic model, says Dr Roger Reeves, professor of medicine at the department of physiology at the School in Baltimore, Maryland.
This new but important component of animal research only warrants a paragraph: Genetic modification of animal models is being attempted, to make them more closely model humans. Perhaps the most controversial reason why the use of mice is commonplace in modern experimentation relates to the various techniques that are now available for modifying their genome. All scientists who work with animals spend a significant proportion of their time applying for approval from their institutional animal ethics committee for their work, and ensuring that approval is maintained.