by particle gun? The DNA molecules present outside the cells during electric pulse, can enter the cells through these pores. Beneficial mutations that develop in one bacterial cell can also be passed to related bacteria of different lineages through the process of horizontal transmission.
Some bacteria have evolved systems that transport free.
DNA from the outside of the bacterial.
Conjugal plasmids that carry antibiotic resistance genes are called R factors. The DNA undergoing transformation is bound at the surface of bacterial cells by a DNA binding protein christopher Alexander and the Art of Building which remains attached to DNA perhaps to prevent it from the attack of enzyme nuclease till the time it reaches the chromosome of the bacterial cell where Rec. Al"50 l into cooled Eppendorf tubes for each transformation reaction. If cells have the galactosidase and you feed them X-Gal, they turn blue; cells without this operon are white. A plasmid is a small circle of DNA separate from the chromosome; a bacteriophage is a virus that reproduces in bacteria by injecting its DNA; the genome is the total DNA of the bacterial organism. Who was the first to show evidence of bacterial transformation?