the Expanding Circle. Furthermore, reason requires us to act impartially. . Principles are abstract and ethical; universal principles of justice, reciprocity and quality of human rights with respect of human beings as individual persons. We could speculate that the value of one persons life is greater than the value of another to avoid harm. In that case it might be necessary to hurt someone for self-preservation. Take yourself seriously. . The important point about multiple strategies utilitarianism is that we recognize that there may be many ways of achieving the ideal and at different times, different strategies are necessary to achieve the result. .
Whipping the neighbors child would be a case of torturing a child. (The virtues are: Self-evidence, logical consistency, observation, predictability, comprehensiveness, and simplicity.) The better a belief is supported by the six virtues, the more plausible the belief. Justice and Fairness: These subjects have received increasing attention in the 20th century and now due in large part to books like the late John Rawls'. Postconventional level, stage 5: Social Contract Orientation: Right actions are defined in terms of an individual's rights and standards rather than those that have been examined and agreed upon by the society at large.
Torture is usually wrong) and a controversial belief (e.g. We ought to strive to make the consequences of our washington Irvings Literary Works actions as good as possible. . For example, we can compare intellectual pleasures to the pleasures enjoyed by pigs because we have actually experienced them. The person progresses to consider the approval or disapproval of other and not only after fulfilling one's own interests. Our struggle in ethics has been to reason in a consistent logical way. . For instance Kohlberg explains different stages of behavior development starting with Preconventional level, conventional level then lastly the Postconventional level.
4 Theories of Mythology, To what Extend should Goverment Legialate Morality, Biological vs. Humanistic Theo, An investigation into moral development - introduction,