acacia). He turned north charting the coastline as he went and 9 days later landed at Botany Bay which he named for the variety of botanic specimen found there. Kinship, each individual belonged to a family but also to a tribe or estate group (Dingle, 1988, 9). In the same year the Dutch ship Duyfken (Little Dove) sailed into the Gulf of Carpentaria. More than a century and a half later an expedition headed by the British explorer James Cook added the land to the possessions of the British crown. Though Australia now is an independent state according to the Constitution the head of the state is the Monarch of Great Britain represented by the Governor-General. New Crown Colonies, great Britain was on the verge of loosing 13 rebellious American Colonies in 1770.
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English laws were seen as being every Englishman? It was just a little over 390 years that the Australian continent was discovered. Nonetheless every Australian today knows the stories of the famous bushrangers. The early part of Australian history is filled with the tales of the settlers. Only since 1984 has required that a civil servant in Australia be an Australian previously it was sufficient to be British. The Spanish ship of Luis Vaes de Torres sailed through the strait which now bears his name and separates Australia and Papua New Guinea. The Commonwealth of Australia is composed of 6 states and 2 territories: the State of New South Wales with its capital in Sydney the State of Victoria with its capital in Melbourne the State of Queenland with its capital in Brisbane the Sate of Western. And both developed a frontier ethos of independence. Official language is English. For example, the terms; Mother, design and Architecture Father, Brother Sister, Uncle and Aunt were extended to everyone in the tribe. Through these stories and the land people derived a sense of belonging, of identity and of oneness with the living world.